Today is the last day I am going to write on this blog. Therefore, today is the day that I am going to say you good bye. However, before finishing I should explain you what I learned on my last English lessons. Indeed, I will include a little summary about the modules I have already written about.

Well, first of all, I should say that last week we didn’t have class on Wednesday because it was Monday on the timetable. So we had only class on Friday, nonetheless I couldn’t go because I had a doctor appointment. Therefore, I asked Alba what did they do in this lesson and she explained me everything and I tried to do the activities at home. For instance, I worked the vocabulary out doing word combinations with some activities. Then, I read a text called ‘How the Internet is changing lives forever’ and I looked up the words I didn’t understand. Later on, I studied the grammar point called verb pattern, which I put into practice doing some activities in the Extra Practice part or the unit.


As I told you at my first post, I am studying the Industrial Design degree with all my excellent classmates. It means if everything is OK on the future, we will become excellent designers.

Ana Botella, our English teacher, decided to do an interesting work. She gave us different topics according to the Industrial Design. We did groups and we chose a topic. We had to look for information about it and we had to sum it up. The objective was to create a useful mini book with practical information. In the end, we get it.

Well, now I am going to recap briefly and generally all the modules’ information.

First of all, we must be able to give solutions to different problems of functionality and aesthetic. To do so, we have to be creative and innovative. We can get it using creative techniques. Further, we must be always bearing in mind the users’ needs and their likes.

About the process to create a new product is necessary to think about many aspects. From the different materials used to make the product to the packaging. When we talk about materials, we cannot forget the sustainable materials; little by little the environment is more present on design. The package is the way the product is protected, but it also involves the labels which are very important because thanks to them, customers can know how to be used, the transportation, the recycling, etc.

Moreover, the brand is very important when you want to sell a product. It is the first thing that consumers see. It is highly important to attract new clients. The brand must be clear and it must have own personality; it must be exclusive and it must be sociable and suitable for public, because it must be kept on the consumers’ mind for an indefinite period of time. Creators must be fair with the product’s quality.

To finish with, I want to tell you that this degree is very beautiful although in some cases there are difficult things to solve. We should be constant and hard-workers to achieve our goal: to become industrial designers.

It has been a pleasure to tell you about my experience with the English lessons.

Best regards to all of you.

Bye bye!



First of all, I must tell you that last Thursday started the Easter Holiday; therefore, we only had one English day class.

On Wednesday, we started the class reading a text called ‘ Bridging the Gap’. We asked to our teacher the meaning of some words we didn’t understand and we did some activities. Then, we learned some vocabulary, idioms and prefixes and we did two activities to practice the point. Furthermore, the teacher explained us The Passive (2) following the previous unit. We went to the part of the book called Extra Practice and we did some activities. Then, we read another text called ‘Invitation to Tender’ and we did an activity. To finish with, we learned a new Key Language point about requirements and we did a listening activity about it.


This module talks about the history of Industrial Design.

First of all, is important to say that Industrial Design history dates back to the second half of the 18th c. Before, there were instruments, tools and inventions being the base of this branch. We can say that The Industrial Design started, basically, in the Industrial Revolution.

This module talks us about different eras from which we can know now some history developments. It explains us a little history: Greece-Rome, Middle Ages and Renaissance. On this explanation we can find some different kind of developments such as The Printing Press (1436), new sales systems and the invented products by Leonardo da Vinci.

After that, there was the Scientific Revolution and it was when the academies appeared.

During the nineteenth century the most important event to consider was The Industrial Revolution (1760-1830). It was important because of the process evolution to invent and create new things. One of most outstanding is Michael Thonet who thought on industrial production and aesthetic of the product at the same time.

The first design movement was the MODERNISM which tried to mix artistic knowledge with traditional manufacturing. It is based on the nature and fluid forms. His main characteristic is the ornamentation. The most important group was ‘Arts and Crafts’ and the most important designers were: Emile Gallé, Charles Rennied MacKintosh, Gaudí, etc.

Later on, it emerged the RATIONALISM in opposition to the previous movement. Decorative elements were rejected and designs were based on simple geometric forms. On this era, The Bauhaus was the most important design school where theory of colors and materials were studied. Main rationalism designers were Henry Van der Velde, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, etc.

The next movement was the STYLING and AERODYNAMICS which were born in The United States and it was based on the mixture of modernity and aesthetic, to get products more attractive. Some important designers were Henry Dreyfus, Walter Teague and Norman Bel Geddes.

Then, on the sixties, industrial design seemed to lose track and ended up degenerating into a subservience attitude to American consumer culture, the so-called ideology buy ‘more for less’. But, a positive aspect of this era was the birth of a new thought: product’s adaptation to the human body. After that, some new movements flourished up: Pop, Radical Design, High-Tech, Postmodernism, Deconstructivism, Postindustrialism, Ecological Design and Organic Design.

The last part of the module talks us about the FUTURE DESIGN. When we talk about it, we should think on new technologies and materials that make life easier and also on the evolution and development of nanotechnologies. Another important factor on this period is the use of clean energy sources and recycling materials. Some examples of future design are the cars, the computers and the future mobile phones.

Now, I am going to tell you the second part of the module which is called the Future Perspectives. It is based on the expression Planned Obsolescence.

Basically, we can define it as a policy of producing consumer goods that rapidly become obsolete and so require replacing.

This term was not developed until the 90’s. It was when the mass production and a consumer society started. Products were bought for fun, not for necessity. One feature is creating cheaper products and rapidly changing, so through design and marketing consumers are seduced to buy the “latest model”.

Some known examples of planned obsolescence are the EPSON Printer, Apple iPod, Light and Women’s Socks.



Today, I am going to write about the English lectures. Last week, on Wednesday we finished the Unit 7 and on Friday, we did the Progress Test 2.

At the beginning of this lecture, we were about half an hour on the virtual platform doing some activities.

The first day the teacher let us to do some activities on the virtual platform because we had to finish it for the exam, being used as a review. Later on, we started the Unit 7 talking about Architecture. As always, we started talking about the topic. Then, we learned some vocabulary and we did some activities. One of the activities was to classify adjectives in positive, negative or neutral significance. Moreover, we saw three pictures: The Coliseum, The Hajj Airport Terminal and The Eiffel Tower. Then we had to describe them. To finish with the lesson, we talked about a building from our country.

On Friday, we only had two class hours because we did a Progress Test 2. On the second part of the class, we finished the Unit 7. We read a text which talked about a hotel built in the space. After that, the teacher explained us The Passive form and we did some activities to practice it. To finish the lesson, we did two Listening activities.


On the first part of this module we learned about brands. It is very important to understand what marketing and branding is. We can define the Marketing as an activity or set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offers that costumers, clients, partners, and society value. Moreover, we can define the Branding like a process to look for a brand, specially, how you achieve to differentiate among others.

As it is said in the module, a BRAND is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers on the market. In addition, from the view of companies, the brand is the ‘key’ element to differentiate themselves among all competitors and a good way to attract customers.

We can talk about brand realities, meaning that to create a brand is used a name, term, symbol, design or combination of these elements. Also we can say that the material reality is used to identity a brand, and the psychology reality is the brand image, both used to consumers to identify and differentiate the products.

In short, as main characteristics of the brands must be mentioned those used as reference value that identify the products and the importance of them as symbol of quality, warranty and responsibility.

A brand is based on the following three elements:

– Name: as verbal identity.
– Logo: as visual identity.
– Graphics: to complete the visual identity (all you cannot pronounce).

When you see the three elements, you can also call it Anagram.

The name should be brief and easy to read and pronounce.

The second part of the module is centered on developing brands. This development is based on four universal principles:

– Clarity and personality
– Exclusivity
– Expressivity
– Be social

In order to develop a brand, it must be followed different steps:

– Research: it is to make a market analysis.
– Design: it is the psychological reality of the brand.
– Positioning: it is the status of the brand in the consumers’ mind.
– Construction: it is the material reality of the brand.

Also, there are three different strategies:

– Only brand strategy.
– Multiple brand strategy.
– Strategy endorsed of brands.

Brands must adapt themselves to the social and economic situation. Therefore, the brand must go through:

– Reposition.
– Renewal of a new brand.
– Create a new brand.



Last week we only had one lecture because on Thursday and Friday it was held a party for the students.

Nevertheless, on Wednesday we did a regular lesson, in which we finished the Unit 6, thus we are going to do the Progress Test 2 next Friday (March 30th). We started the lesson correcting the homework and we continued reading two text of the book: ‘Dracula’ and ‘Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’, both related to evil characters. We did some activities about them and also, we did an activity in pairs.

Then, the teacher explained a new Grammar Point: Used to and Would. We went back to the Language Reference part of the book and we learned it.

To continue with, we read a text called ‘Lee Hart and his memoirs’ and we did some activities.

Furthermore, we learned the key language for proposing, bargaining and talking about needs/expectations. We listened to a conversation in between two men. Finally, we listened to another text and we did some activities to practice.


First part of this module is centred on advanced materials. We can learn these materials and their properties. We have been introduced to some of these new materials:

– Graphene.
– Aerogel.
– Fullerence.
– Acoustic metamaterials.
– Transparent concrete.

Principally, this module talks about what is the Graphene material and which are its properties. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon. Its name is a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene.

James Hone said something like that graphene is so resistant that if you want perforate a graphene sheet like cellophane thickness, you would need to put an elephant on a pencil.

Some of the most important properties of these materials are: self-coolant, high thermal and electrical conductivity, high elasticity and hardness, resistance and very light. Due to these properties, these materials can be used with different applications like electronic elements, computer, medicine elements, optical communication, generating, transporting and storing energy and aviation applications.

The second part of this module is based on sustainability for materials. We can define it as materials whose production is supported indefinitely by nature. These are the keys to ensure productive survival for the population and our way of life.

We can classify this type of materials in this way:

–   Materials of plant origin like wood, natural fibres and polymers.
– Materials produced using waste products such as raw materials. These are the recycled matter usual products.

Sustainable materials should follow certain requirements to ensure their sustainability.

There are different types of sustainable materials: concrete, copper, brick, recycled material, aggregates, hemp thread or bamboo. Obviously, there are some better materials than other due to their different characteristics but we can build almost everything with them.

To finish with, we should mention how important the use of sustainable materials is; furthermore, people must be aware of the environmental issues.



Last week, we finished the Unit 5 and we started the 6th one. We started to learn the Modal Verbs as grammar point. Later on, we did some activities about in order to practice these concepts. We worked the modal verbs out with a text called ‘Ultra’ in which we had to find out modal verbs and we had to correct the mistakes. Then, we did a reading activity and we read a short text called ‘Railway Journeys’. When we finished, we also learned about the modal verbs in the past tenses. We worked that point using the Extra Practice part of the book, in which we did some activities. We did also a listening, called ‘Transport Problems’, which talked about the troubles that can be caused by the different types of transport in the city. To finish the unit, we worked the key language point, persuading and recommending actions; and we did more activities in order to practice the listening skill.

We started the Unit 6 talking about Literature. As usual, we started the unit with some oral activities. Then, we read a text called ‘The Nobel Prize for Literature’ and we worked the text doing some activities. Moreover, we learned some more vocabulary and we did some activities about the topic. To do it in a different way, we did an activity in pairs. We finished the class learning a grammar point: the narrative tenses.


This module talks about product packaging. On the first part of this module we have learnt the purposes of packaging, the labels, the symbols used on packages and some development considerations.

The main purpose of packaging is to protect goods. Products must be protected by the possible damages.

The different parts of protection are:

– Physical protection.
– Barrier protection.
– Containment or agglomeration.
– Information transmission.
– Marketing.
– Security.
– Convenience.
– Portion control.

The labels include symbols which are very important because they explain packaging products characteristics and they give us part of the product information. Also, symbols are used to report safety rules for users. Normally, these are very simple and easy to understand:

– Recycling Symbol.
– Barcode.
– Carton box package sign.
– Hazard symbols.
-Age warning symbol or within the toy packaging.

In addition, there are some development points to consider. Nowadays, product design and packaging are developed at the same time, both are equally important. Each product needs a specific package; therefore it has to meet a specific physical characteristic.

Furthermore, we have to consider the environment when we design a package. Sustainability, environmental responsibility and recycling regulation are just few concerns to be considered. When we talk about this topic, we can’t forget the traditional ‘three R’s’ (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), moreover prevention, minimization, energy recovery and disposal.

There is a packaging classification according to the number of layers or its function:

– Primary Packaging.
– Secondary Packaging.
– Tertiary Packaging.

The package material is chosen depending on the kind of product it is going to protect. Each package has to respond to different aspects.

In conclusion, I think that designing a good package is difficult because you have to take into account many factors. In my opinion, it is very important because it is the first thing that the user is going to see.



Last week we finished the Unit 3; in this one we did some activities about an infectious disease called malaria and to know more about that topic, we did an oral activity. We did groups and we prepared an event in order to warn the illness.

Then we learned some verbs followed by prepositions. Later on, the teacher explained us the Future Perfect and the Will verbal tenses. We did also some activities to practice both tenses.

Moreover, we read a text called “The Dowling Hospital”, we did some activities and we worked the vocabulary out of this text.

To finish the unit, we learned the key language about predicting and we practiced this vocabulary doing some more activities.

The following day, the teacher started the Unit 5 which talks about the transport. I could not go to class, but my classmates explained me the activities that they did in class. To sum up, they did some activities to learn vocabulary about transport, they read a text ‘The Dangers of Safety’ and they practiced the oral communication in class.


Nowadays, a product design is done to improve people’s life; it means that designers try to supply people’s needs, so that a design philosophy based on the needs and desires of users has been developed. This kind of design is called User-Centred Design or People-Centred Design. It is essential to test design products because it is very difficult to create a perfect product.

Sometimes, designers create products that users can not use because they are very difficult to use. The most important is that designers should know the products’ users and the users’ requirements. Designers should listen to their users and understand them.

We must take into account this step in the early stages of the whole process.

First of all, we should obtain the whole information about users and then we should evaluate and list their needs, objectives and other parameters to take into account in the design.

Ideas must be organized and classified according to various groups; in addition, ideas have to be classified according to their importance.

Finally, the product must be checked by the designers and users. It is very important, because its proper operation and compliance must be verified. Furthermore, it is important because if the product does not pass the test, it will have to be redesigned.

We can relate methodologies and techniques, known as People Centered Designing (PCD). Designers use them to know about users’ needs and their behavior. They use them to improve their products.

Now, I am going to talk about some of the techniques included in the PCD.

– USERS’ TEST: It is one of the most important techniques, thus we can evaluate the usability of the designs. It consists of observing how some users do something; therefore problems of usability are analyzed by designers. These proofs are done with 15 people, approximately, dividing them into groups of three. Finally, the information collected is studied to improve the design.

– HEURISTIC EVALUATION: It needs experts to investigate and to evaluate the design. Further, they are necessary to look for problems usability. The design is evaluated independently by the experts and after that, they meet and take decisions about the product.

– CARD SORTING: It consists of a study done with users’ proposals. Users have an unsorted pack of index cards and they have to sort it in different groups. The results of users are combined and then, these are analyzed statistically.

– EYE – TRACKING: It is related to the users’ visual behavior. Mainly, the technique consists of analyzing and studying the visual exploration of the users.

– ETHNOGRAPHY: Designers coexists with users, to understand and to learn about them. According to these two points, the designer has to be able to design products closer adapted to the ethnical necessities.

– INTERVIEW: It is the most direct technique. It consists of doing some questions related to the design which must be answered by the users. This questionnaire provides a subjective result for the designers.

– POLL: This is used to know audience requirements. It can be achieved asking different questions to users, these being answered by a representative statistic proportion of the audience.

– WEB ANALITYC: This term is known as the way to collect information by using the Internet, and analyzing the results we obtain in the research. Their principal advantage is that it is based on the screening of the total amount of users that are using the website.



Today, I am going to speak you about my fourth week of the English lectures. Last week, we finished the Unit 3; in this one we corrected some homework and we did some review section activities, mainly about grammar. Well, later on, the teacher told us that we could do some activities on the Internet learning platform, meaning if we had free time.

During the English session, we went to the public demonstration at University Square, so we lost an hour of class. After the demonstration, we went back to class.

Then, we started the Unit 4 which talks about Medicine. We did an oral activity and we also did an activity about vocabulary of medical terms. To finish the class, we did a listening activity about those medical terms.

On Friday, we took the Progress Test 1. The class was divided into two groups because the classroom is very small. I took the exam with the first group, at 8 o’clock in the morning (o 8 am). The exam was divided into two parts, listening and grammar. I think that the grammar part wasn’t difficult but the other part wasn’t easy.

After the exam, we had a break while the second group did the exam. Later, we came back to the class to continue with the lesson.

Them, we did a reading activity and speaking, both in pairs. Obviously, the activities were about the medicine texts. Later, we learned the differences among Future Continuous, Going to and Present Continuous. And so, we did some activities about it. For finishing the class, we did a listening activity.


This module talks about relation among three terms: Design, Creativity and Innovation.

The first part of this module is called ‘Definitions and Examples’.

To start with, I must say that finding a good definition of design is very complicated. Therefore, I am going to define what a good design is according to Dieter Rams. According to him, a good design is based on ten principles:

– Innovative
– Make a product useful
– Aesthetic
– Unobtrusive
– Honest
– Long-lasting
– Thorough, down to the last detail
– Environmentally-friendly
– As little design as possible

I should say that all products don’t need to have these properties to be a good design.

The creativity is defined as the generation of new ideas or concepts, which are related to good designs. This is an innate ability but it could be improved with some creativity techniques:

– Brainstorming
– Deformation and adjustment
– Analogies
– Morphological box

If you want to be a good industrial designer, you have to know these methods to create quality products.

Now, I am going to define the term innovation. It is related to the reality of ideas that we have generated using creativity.

As the other terms, Innovation also follows some principles:

–       Transposition
–       Combination
–       Abstraction
–       Discovery
–       Transformation
–       Transmogrification
–       Distillation
–       Specialization
–       Opposition
–       Provocation
–       Tantalization
–       Constraint
–       Audacity

The second part of this module is called ‘Exploring Design, Creativity and Innovation’.

It talks about the relation among the three terms before mentioned and their relation with business. Design has emerged as a key differentiator for businesses.

It must be distinguished two aspects about design:

– ‘Designer Design’, staff made to show its design. They are according to the market and generally they have an elevated price.

– ‘Quiet Design’, designed staff but we do not notice they exist.

We have to be able to distinguish innovation and invention. On one hand, an inventor uses new knowledge to create something new, perhaps an artifact, service or a piece of equipment. They are useful if they satisfy a need or desire. On the other hand, creativity is the ability to generate new ideas and being necessary to make a good design.

There are three different types of creativity:

– Technological creativity
– Economic creativity
– Artistic/cultural creativity

All of them are interrelated and they share a common process of thinking reinforcing each other.

In conclusion, I should say that these three concepts are interrelated. We need to know these two terms to create an outstanding product among the others of the same properties.